How much does online therapy cost?

How much does online therapy cost?

Online therapy is an excellent and convenient way to access mental health support. Even though it may seem that online therapy is a relatively new development, virtual therapy has existed in many forms for years. Over the past year and a half, with the COVID-19 pandemic, online therapy has grown even more popular, with most therapists and programs switching from in-person to an online format. Upon making the switch, many therapists, and their clients, found that online therapy offered several benefits. Aside from being more accessible, online therapy can also be a more affordable option than in-person treatment. If you are considering therapy, learning about the costs of online options can be a great start.

 

What is Online Therapy?

Individual Therapy

Online therapy can take many different forms. Traditionally, when we think of therapy, the image that comes to mind is one of individual counselling, where a therapist talks to a single patient, face-to-face in an office setting. Individual counselling is a popular and proven form of therapy that can, fortunately, be replicated quite easily over the phone through a secure online platform.

Through teletherapy or video therapy, you will meet with a therapist on a call or video call and talk to them for a set amount of time. The platform your therapist chooses will be both secure and private. You can work through any issues you are having and learn coping mechanisms just as you would in person.

While an in-person session can typically run anywhere from $100-200 per appointment, there may be a slight decrease in cost if this session takes place virtually. This can be due to fewer operating costs for the therapists or if your individual

In a treatment plan like this, you may do online counselling in both a group and individual setting for a set period of weeks, as well as have other accountability tools at your disposal like an app and continued access to clinicians. Because it is , the cost breakdown works out to less than if you were to seek out all the elements of the program individually. For example, the cost of a one-hour individual counselling session becomes less than as part of an IOP, while a single session with an independent therapist might run around $150 per hour.

 

Group Therapy

Online group therapy is a form of psychotherapy in which one or two therapists work with several clients at the same time. Therapy groups typically have up to 12 members and meet for one or more hours, weekly. The therapists guide the group process and provide structure. Groups may be open or closed. In an open group, members may join at any time, while a closed group has a set start and end date (like in an IOP).

Often, community support can take the form of group therapy. Online community support is often less expensive or free to use but may not provide the amount of guidance or support on its own that you need to fully recover.

 

Text Therapy

With advances in technology, teletherapy now extends to texting as well. Text therapy services generally operate through a platform that will match you with a therapist who can offer the kind of support you need. Once you have a therapist, you can start sending messages detailing what you want to work through. Text therapy is often priced at a monthly rate and can be much cheaper.

It is also important to keep in mind that even if the cost of the service is the same price online, you might be saving in other ways. Consider and factor in your travel costs or what you might save in childcare if you are doing therapy from home.

 

Is Online Therapy Worth It?

The short answer is yes. While internet-based therapy might seem like a rather new offering, as mentioned above, it’s been around for quite some time and improvements in technology have only made the practice more secure, easier to navigate, and optimal. There is already strong evidence that online therapy is as effective as in-person treatment. A trial in the Journal of Effective Disorders found that “internet-based intervention for depression is equally beneficial to regular face-to-face therapy. However, more long-term efficacy, indicated by continued symptom reduction three months after treatment, could only be found for the online group.”1 In another meta-review of apps for anxiety and depression, researchers found that apps “hold great promise with clear clinical advantages, either as stand-alone self-management or as adjunctive treatments.”2

You may also find that online therapy works best for your lifestyle. It provides access to services you may not otherwise have in your local area and allows you to work on yourself from the comfort of your home. For those who deal with social anxiety, online therapy has been found to be “effective for reducing the symptoms of social anxiety disorder” without the triggering symptoms of face-to-face, which may lead some to avoid or quit treatment.3 Increasingly, smartphone-based options, like apps, are being taken up by organizations like universities to support student mental health.

With a rise in mental health related issues this past year, online and teletherapy helped to increase the capacity for care and aided many individuals to stay on track and continue to make progress with their therapeutic goals.

 

Do Insurance Providers Cover Online Therapy?

While many insurance providers do cover some forms of online therapy, it is always best to check with your provider directly to ensure you know what is included in your plan. Often, whether you are covered or not depends on the credentials of the therapist. Make sure to check with the therapist or program you are interested in to confirm what they are certified in so you can give your insurance provider as much information as possible before investing in a service.

If your insurance providers do not provide coverage, investigate charities that run programs or will help you to fund your therapy. There is more support out there than you might imagine.

 

How Much Should You Expect to Pay for an Online Therapy Program?

The most important thing to keep in mind when considering cost is to think about what is going to be most effective for you. While some services may cost less, they may not be what you need to recover. Going for the cheaper option, instead of the right option, will not only lead to delayed recovery, but money and time wasted.

Something like an IOP may seem like a larger investment, but when you break down the services and amount of hours you are getting, the value for the cost is greater than the average price of a therapy session or standalone text service. It is useful to always consider the cost against the amount and quality of service.

The cost of EHN Online’s IOP works out to $38/hr for 173 hours of treatment at a bundled price. If you were to choose everything the program offers in a self-directed manner, you would end up paying almost twice the price. Therefore, an IOP may be the best option.

All in all, online therapy is a great way to get help for less money and easier accessibility. Prices range, but there are options like insurance and charities that can help. No matter which option, or combination of options you choose, the aims remain the same. Online therapy, like in person therapy, is there to help you relieve distress through discussing and expressing feelings; helping to change attitudes and habits that may be unhelpful, and promoting more constructive ways of coping.

 

Struggling with mental health or addiction? Sign up for an online Intensive Outpatient Program today.

 

References

  1. Lecomte, T., Potvin, S., Corbière, M., Guay, S., Samson, C., Cloutier, B., Francoeur, A., Pennou, A., & Khazaal, Y. (2020). Mobile Apps for Mental Health Issues: Meta-Review of Meta-Analyses. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 8(5), e17458. https://doi.org/10.2196/17458
  2. “Internet-based versus face-to-face cognitive-behavioral intervention for depression: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.” Journal of Affective Disorders, Volumes 152–154, January 2014, Pages 113-121. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165032713005120?via%3Dihub
  3. McCall HC, Helgadottir FD, Menzies RG, Hadjistavropoulos HD, Chen FS. Evaluating a Web-Based Social Anxiety Intervention Among Community Users: Analysis of Real-World Data. J Med Internet Res. 2019;21(1):e11566. doi:10.2196/11566

Does online counselling work for depression?

Does online counselling work for depression?

Man-thinking

It is estimated that 1 in 3 Canadians will be affected by a mental illness during their lifetime.1 With mental health conditions like depression on the rise in Canada,2 access to treatment and care are more important than ever. Therapy has long been studied and proven as a positive treatment for many mental illnesses, but online or virtual treatment is a relatively newer endeavour. While teletherapy has existed for over twenty years,13 interest in virtual treatment for mental health concerns grew significantly in 2020 when most in person services had to quickly switch to virtual due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This switch increased both the study of and interest surrounding online counselling for conditions like depression and anxiety. Research shows that both modes of delivery are effective and there may even be some lifestyle benefits to online treatment.

What makes therapy effective?

To decide whether online treatment may be the right choice for you, it helps to understand what therapy is and what makes therapy effective. In psychotherapy, professionals apply scientifically validated procedures to help people develop healthier, more effective habits. There are several approaches to therapy—including cognitive behavioural (CBT), interpersonal, and other kinds of talk therapy—that help individuals work through their problems.3 Psychotherapy offers people the opportunity to identify the factors that contribute to their mental conditions and to deal effectively with the causes. Skilled therapists work with individuals so they can identify negative thought patterns, pinpoint and solve certain life problems, and regain a sense of control and pleasure in life.4

Effective therapy can be determined by several factors. Broadly speaking, a person may notice a reduction in their symptoms, an increase in overall happiness, more energy, and better self-worth. 5,6

Differences and similarities between virtual and in person therapy

All of the above outcomes can be achieved whether someone chooses to seek therapy in person or online. When thinking about which option is right for you, consider how the two modes are similar and how they differ.

Keep in mind is that both are effective for treating a mental disorder. A 2014 study found that online treatment was just as effective as face-to-face treatment for depression,7 while a 2018 study found that online CBT was equally as effective as face-to-face treatment for major depression, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder.8

Reading body language

Both in person and online treatment also offer the opportunity to make a personal connection with your counsellor and have one-on-one time with them for a personal assessment and to identify any potential concerns. Therapists that operate virtually are often trained to pick up on social and body language cues even in a virtual session and can take similar, if not the same, steps to intervene in a crisis. Before selecting a virtual therapist, you can inquire about their online training and how crises are addressed to ensure that you are satisfied with their approach.

Location and time

The largest difference between the delivery of in person and online therapy is the logistics surrounding sessions, such as time and place. While virtual treatment can be done from your own home and requires no commute time, in person therapy involves travelling to and from a therapist’s office.

Because virtual treatment takes place remotely, your location does not matter. With face-to-face treatment, the therapist must be in a vicinity close to you and your choices are limited to those that practice in your area. When geographical location is eliminated from the mix, more specialized treatment can often be found online with a larger pool of services to choose from.

Cost of treatment

Cost is another thing that might differ between in person and virtual. While some therapists may charge the same for online and in person sessions, certain virtual programs may be more cost-effective, where the price breakdown per hour comes out to less than a typical session.

Anonymity and privacy

You may also want to consider the varying levels of anonymity that come with programs. With in-person, there is always the chance of running into someone you recognize in a waiting room or in front of the therapist’s office, particularly if you live in a small town. In virtual programs, there may be a group session where other participants are involved. As with many programs that deal with private subject matter, measures are taken to ensure a level of privacy. These measures are another thing to consider when inquiring about programs that may include a group component.

Privacy and confidentiality are among common concerns for those who consider online treatment programs. Despite popular belief, online therapy can be equally as confidential as in person therapy. If you are feeling unsure about your privacy, inquire about whether your service is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). In short, this act works to protect the confidentiality of people receiving medical treatment, including mental health services.

Suitability

Lastly, consider what option is truly right for your condition and symptoms. Some individuals may not be suitable for online therapy. Individuals with severe mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, intellectual disabilities, or high suicidality may not be a good fit for some online therapy services.9 On the other hand, those with severe social anxiety might benefit from testing the waters of socialization through virtual group meetings where the perceived risks are much lower.

Proven benefits of online counselling

Flexibility

There are several benefits to online therapy. For many people, being able to partake in therapy from their own home saves them the time it takes to commute to and from treatment. It also allows for greater flexibility if the person cannot leave the house to attend a session. Those with younger children, for example, can attend a virtual session from their own home without having to arrange childcare.

Accessibility

A virtual program is also ideal for those with less accessibility to individual counsellors, such as those who live in smaller towns or remote areas. In these cases, online therapy works well as distance is no longer an issue. This also allows people to access a particular kind of service or therapeutic program that might not be offered anywhere physically near to them.

Less intimidation, more connections

Online group programs create a safe space for participants to open up to one another, which increases the number of opportunities to access peer support and make connections. Online therapy also encourages the disinhibition effect. Knowing you can close your laptop, are in a safe space, and that your support system may be close by allows people to feel more relaxed and comfortable to share their experiences. This is especially true for those who deal with social anxiety. Not having to leave the house and being able to attend treatment from a safe space makes getting help less intimidating.

 

While online therapy does not have the century of research behind it that in person therapy does, several studies and research in the last decade have found that online treatment has equal efficacy to in person treatment. One study directly compared the effectiveness of the online CBT to in-person CBT and found that they were equally effective at reducing depression.10 In that study, those who stayed in therapy the longest saw the greatest benefit. It is not only CBT and the treatment of depression that works well online. Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, which focuses on setting goals and finding solutions to problems, has also been tested online. In one study, researchers assigned students with mild to moderate levels of anxiety to receive either online or in-person therapy. Both methods were equally effective.11 Online therapy has also been studied regarding teletherapy’s success for PTSD and proved to be an effective method of treatment.12

To summarize, online therapy can bypass factors such as transportation, accessibility, and affordability. Remember that while a lot happens in sessions, most of the growth work is done out in the world while you are experimenting with and practicing the things you learned in treatment. Whether doing counselling in person or online, deciding to focus on your mental health and well being is always a worthwhile commitment.

 

How to access online counselling

If you think online treatment would suit your needs and lifestyle, consider EHN Online’s Mood (Depression) and Anxiety Intensive Outpatient Program. This online therapeutic program is for individuals struggling with mood or anxiety disorders such as (but not limited to) depression, anxiety or panic disorders and are looking to manage or alleviate their symptoms.

This online intensive outpatient program provides a supportive and structured treatment experience that allows patients to make meaningful changes to sustain long-term recoveries. You can expect to receive evidence-based therapy and support in a safe and non-judgemental space.

 

 

Still not sure which type of treatment is right for you?

Chat with an admissions counsellor or take our self-assessment quiz to learn more!

 

 

References

1 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health (CCHS – MH), 2012. Percentage of the household population aged 12+ living in the 10 provinces that met criteria for at least one of six mental disorders (including mood disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders).

2 Mental Health in Canada: Covid-19 and Beyond. (2020). CAMH Policy Advice. https://www.camh.ca/-/media/files/pdfs—public-policy-submissions/covid-and-mh-policy-paper-pdf.pdf

3 Understanding psychotherapy and how it works. (2020, July 31). Https://www.Apa.Org. https://www.apa.org/topics/psychotherapy/understanding

4 Depression and how psychotherapy and other treatments can help people recover. (n.d.). Https://Www.Apa.Org. Retrieved July 20, 2021, from https://www.apa.org/topics/depression/recover

5 What is Psychotherapy? (2019, January). American Psychiatric Association. https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/psychotherapy

6 Gillihan, S. (2018, February 7). How Do You Know When Your Depression Is Improving? Psychology Today Canada. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/think-act-be/201802/how-do-you-know-when-your-depression-is-improving

7 Wagner, B., Horn, A. B., & Maercker, A. (2014). Internet-based versus face-to-face cognitive-behavioral intervention for depression: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152–154, 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.032

8 Andrews, G., Basu, A., Cuijpers, P., Craske, M. G., McEvoy, P., English, C. L., & Newby, J. M. (2018). Computer therapy for the anxiety and depression disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: An updated meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 55, 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2018.01.001

9 Stoll, J., Müller, J. A., & Trachsel, M. (2020). Ethical Issues in Online Psychotherapy: A Narrative Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 0. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00993

10 Carlbring P, Andersson G, Cuijpers P, Riper H, Hedman-Lagerlöf E. Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 2018; 47(1):1-8.

11 Novella JK, Ng KM, Samuolis J. A comparison of online and in-person counseling outcomes using solution-focused brief therapy for college students with anxiety. Journal of American College Health. 2020:1-8.

12 Turgoose D, Ashwick R, Murphy D. Systematic review of lessons learned from delivering tele-therapy to veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2018;24(9):575-85.

13 Novotney, A. (2017, February). A growing wave of online therapy. Https://www.Apa.Org. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2017/02/online-therapy

Online programs for substance use disorder – understanding your options for recovery

Online programs for substance use disorder – understanding your options for recovery

The decision to seek care for your alcohol or drug addiction is an important step towards recovery. By researching the differences in treatment options, you are already demonstrating self-awareness and initiative to make a change. Nonetheless, with so much information available online, the researching process can be intimidating. In this article, we will help you understand what online options are available so that you can make an informed decision about which course of action is the best for you.

One option when seeking online therapy is an intensive outpatient program (IOP).  This is an addiction or mental health treatment program designed for individuals who need more structure and intensive treatment than they can get from standard treatment options such as one-on-one therapy, medication, and support groups. IOP’s can either be in person or provided through an online therapy platform. 

Online therapy for mental health and addiction

Online therapy, also known as e-therapy, virtual therapy or teletherapy can be an effective treatment option for mental health and addiction support over the internet. This can occur via messaging, texts, video conferencing, or other digital solutions in real-time. This method can be beneficial to those struggling with mild to moderate addiction or mental health symptoms. It is important to note that online therapy can be very effective for many, but it is not a suitable replacement for inpatient programming if you are experiencing severe addiction symptoms.

Online therapy is an excellent solution if you live in a remote area, have limited access to quality substance addiction support or prefer to get help from the comfort of your own home. Programs that are strictly online typically have fewer operational costs and therefore can often offer more affordable treatment options. Online therapy is convenient and affordable – gone are the days of long commutes to therapy, missing work, or booking a babysitter to attend a session. 

How to have the best online therapy experience

Convenience is often reported as one of the greatest advantages of online therapy, however; this is contingent on the assumption that patients have access to a:

  • High speed internet connection
  • Laptop or tablet (preferable to a smartphone)
  • Private and comfortable space 
  • Solid support system or loved one to help maintain accountability throughout the program

Accessing online therapy for addiction

To begin the process of joining an online therapy program, decide which medium you prefer (text, video call, etc.) and conduct an online search. Find a place that resonates best with you and call or request an appointment. They may ask questions about your current mental state and demographic information to help match you with a compatible counsellor or program. Some additional factors to consider when choosing an online addictions program include: 

  • Therapist designation: If you want insurance to cover the cost of your therapy, make sure that the company has what you’re looking for. You will want to ask about if the therapists are Masters-level and registered, as most insurance companies have policies around this.
  • Schedules: Find out how flexible the individual and groups session schedules are to ensure they fit into your work and home life.
  • Evidence-based: Therapeutic approaches such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT) have been researched and proven to help patients develop meaningful and lasting change in their lives. Ask the admissions counsellor about which methods their programs use.
  • Price: Determine how much the sessions cost and what your budget can support. It is also important to consider what else the program offers in addition to the therapy (i.e. family support, aftercare, etc).

Pricing and payment methods for online therapy vary. Some platforms might use a subscription structure, billing you bi-weekly or monthly, and some might have you pay yearly or by session. It is important to keep in mind which method works best for you when selecting a platform. Prices for online therapy typically reside between $60-100 per session, which is a nice contrast to the $150-240 average for an in-person therapy session.

Figuring out which program is right for you

Substance use disorders are classified as mild, moderate and severe. Use the following criteria to help understand where your symptoms stand. If you agree with 2-4 of the following statements, you likely have mild symptoms. If you agree with 4-6 of the following statements you might fall under the moderate category, and 7+ means you are likely experiencing severe symptoms of substance use disorder. Speak to a healthcare professional for a formal diagnosis.

  • Your substance use has created dangerous situations for yourself or others.
  • Your substance use has caused relationship problems or conflicts with others.
  • You frequently fail to meet your responsibilities at work or home.
  • When you stop using the substance, you experience withdrawal symptoms.
  • You have built a tolerance and have increased your use amount and frequency.
  • You’ve tried to cut back or quit entirely, but haven’t been successful.
  • You spend a lot of your time using the substance.
  • Your substance use has led to physical or mental health problems, such as liver damage or anxiety.
  • You have skipped activities or stopped doing activities you once enjoyed in order to use the substance.
  • You experience cravings for the substance.

Take our short assessment quiz to find out if online rehab is a viable option for your recovery.

 

Types of online therapy for addiction 

There is a wide variety of online therapy solutions. To determine which option may be best for you given the severity of your symptoms, see the checklist above. 

  • Individual counselling – One on one counselling with a therapist via secure video platform. Most effective for mild symptoms.
  • Self-help groups – AA or SMART Recovery groups via secure video platform. Most effective for mild symptoms.
  • Mental health and wellness apps – Websites/self-led apps dedicated to mental health and wellness. Most effective for mild symptoms.
  • Group counselling – Therapeutic support with peers led by a therapist via secure video platform. Most effective for mild/moderate symptoms.
  • Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOPs) – Intensive online treatment via secure platform. Most effective for mild/moderate symptoms. 

For those experiencing severe symptoms of addiction, inpatient therapy with medically assisted detox treatment might be a more suitable action plan for you.

How can an Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) help you recover from addiction?

Have you tried individual counselling or self-help groups but feel you need more help? IOPs provide a more structured and intensive solution as they combine individual counselling, group counselling, family support and an app into one bundled package. Both intensive and flexible, IOPs are effective for those who are unable to take time away from family or work, but require more structure in their treatment process. 

IOP patients can maintain their daily routines and access therapy outside of work hours. Some of the most notable benefits for substance use disorder IOPs are:

  • Flexible scheduling to prevent interference with family and work time
  • Receive support and connection from others in a safe and non-judgemental space
  • Manage progress and prevent relapse with a structured aftercare program
  • Involve loved ones in your recovery for additional long term support
  • Receive immediate support with rolling intake and support on demand
  • Stay on top of your own recovery with progress tracking
  • Complimentary to AA and SMART Recovery
  • Evidence-based and use curriculum that is proven to work
  • Compatible with an easy-to-use online platform and app 

The IOP at EHN Online is eight weeks of intensive treatment, for nine hours a week, featuring both individual and group therapy. Studies show that group therapy plays an important role on the route to recovery as it creates a close-knit support network to give and receive information from peers with similar experiences, and provides an opportunity for increased self-awareness.[1] [2]

For ten months following treatment, patients participate in aftercare, with one virtual group meeting per week and access to the outpatient app, Wagon. This will allow you to track daily progress, achieve your goals, and better communicate with your counsellor. EHN Online’s in-house clinical team ensures full cohesion across the network, so your designated counsellor can join you throughout your entire journey to recovery. 

Accessing an Intensive Outpatient Program

To begin your journey with an EHN Online Intensive Outpatient Program, book an assessment with one of our IOP counsellors. You’ll discuss your symptoms, your history, and your goals for the future before you agree on a program that’s right for you. If you decide to go ahead, your counsellor will register you in that program during your appointment.

Many employee benefit plans cover treatment programs for alcohol and drug addiction. Contact EHN Online with the name of your employer and insurance provider so we can help determine your coverage and financing solutions.

Other IOP streams

EHN Online offers a variety of Intensive Outpatient Programs to help individuals reach their recovery goals:

How much does an IOP for addiction cost?

When it comes to cost, you need to take into account the chance of future intensive program needs. If your initial treatment does not have lasting positive effects and you need to re-enter a program, your total cost of rehabilitation will increase dramatically. It is more cost-effective to select a program that you feel will best address your needs, immerse you with a supportive group of peers, and keep you on track the first time around.

While your mental and physical health doesn’t have a price tag, you do have to consider what type of support can fit into your budget. Because of the bundled nature of IOPs, the hourly cost is actually far lower than a stand-alone individual therapy session or group. Here’s a simple cost breakdown: 

$38/hour for 173 hours over one year:

  • 9 hours of individual/group therapy sessions for 8 weeks
  • 12 available hours of family programming
  • 10 months of weekly aftercare 
  • Access to a digital app for corresponding materials and progress reports 
  • A detailed discharge meeting and summary 

Compared to traditional prices for individual and group therapy at about $60-100 per hourly session, an Intensive Outpatient Program provides a bundled offering for proven results and affordable prices. 

There is no single method of recovery that is the right solution for everyone. Individuals will thrive when they find a mixture of therapies, education, and lifestyle changes that works for them. A great place to begin is to use the severity classification method listed above to identify whether or not you would benefit from separation from your current surroundings and habits.

Congratulations on taking the first step towards recovery! Beginning the process is the most daunting part, and your initiative shows your willingness to make a change in your life. Whichever course of treatment you choose, recovery is around the corner!

Speak to a professional today to find out if an Intensive Outpatient Program is right for you.

 

All of the information on this page has been reviewed and verified by a certified addiction professional.

[1] Fogger, S. A., & Lehmann, K. (2017). Recovery Beyond Buprenorphine: Nurse-Led Group Therapy. Journal of addictions nursing, 28(3), 152–156. https://doi.org/10.1097/JAN.0000000000000180

[2] Epstein, E. E., McCrady, B. S., Hallgren, K. A., Gaba, A., Cook, S., Jensen, N., Hildebrandt, T., Holzhauer, C. G., & Litt, M. D. (2018). Individual versus group female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 88, 27–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2018.02.003

[3] Inpatient vs. outpatient treatment: Recovery options. (2020, September 18). https://www.addictioncenter.com/treatment/inpatient-outpatient-rehab/

[4] Inpatient vs. Outpatient: Comparing Two Types of Patient Care. St. George’s University. (2019, June 18). https://www.sgu.edu/blog/medical/inpatient-versus-outpatient/.